Environmental Science MSc – lecture
Lattices, Reciprocal Lattices and Diffraction
The reciprocal lattice approach is a very useful way to determine the diffraction pattern. If the dimensions of the diffractometer and the wavelength or energy of the incident wave-particles are known, the diffraction pattern can be "backconverted" into the real space arrangement.
Scanning (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Slides of previous lectures
1 Physical quantities, units of measurement, metrology
Measurement and experiments; basic quantities and standards;
measurement systems; The structure and use of the SI system
rules; Dimensional analysis; metrology.
2 Sources and detectors
Charged-particle sources (accelerators)
X-ray, gamma, neutron and charged particle detectors
3 Diffraction methods
Bragg's condition; Ewald sphere construction;
Characterization of amorphous and crystalline materials;
Single-crystal diffraction techniques;
X-ray, neutron, electron diffraction characteristics
4 Microscopic methods
Optical microscopes; Abbe's theory of imaging;
Resolution; Magnification; Depth of Field;
Brightfield Image; Darkfield Image;
Metallographic Microscope; Fluorescence Microscopes;
Stereo; Phase Contrast Microscope;
Confocal Laser Microscope.
Electron microscopy: TEM; SEM.
Scanning Probe Microscopes: STM; AFM; SNOM
5 Spectroscopy methods
General characterization of spectroscopy;
Resolution: Rayleigh criterion;
Dispersive elements: prism; grid; interferometers;
Fourier - transform spectroscopy Michelson interferometer;
X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy XES, XAS, XANES;
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy