Physical measurement methods

Environmental Science MSc – lecture


Lattices, Reciprocal Lattices and Diffraction

The reciprocal lattice approach is a very useful way to determine the diffraction pattern. If the dimensions of the diffractometer and the wavelength or energy of the incident wave-particles are known, the diffraction pattern can be "backconverted" into the real space arrangement.


Ewald Construction


Scanning (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)


Neutron diffraction


Neutron imaging


Slides of previous lectures


1 Physical quantities, units of measurement, metrology

Measurement and experiments; basic quantities and standards; measurement systems; The structure and use of the SI system rules; Dimensional analysis; metrology.

2 Sources and detectors

Charged-particle sources (accelerators) X-ray sources Neutron sources X-ray, gamma, neutron and charged particle detectors Photodetectors

3 Diffraction methods

Kinematic theory; Bragg's condition; Ewald sphere construction; Characterization of amorphous and crystalline materials; Single-crystal diffraction techniques; Polycrystalline diffraction; X-ray, neutron, electron diffraction characteristics

4 Microscopic methods

Optical microscopes; Abbe's theory of imaging; Resolution; Magnification; Depth of Field; Brightfield Image; Darkfield Image; Metallographic Microscope; Fluorescence Microscopes; Stereo; Phase Contrast Microscope; Confocal Laser Microscope. Electron microscopy: TEM; SEM. Scanning Probe Microscopes: STM; AFM; SNOM

5 Spectroscopy methods

General characterization of spectroscopy; Resolution: Rayleigh criterion; Dispersive elements: prism; grid; interferometers; Fabry-Perot interferometer; Fourier - transform spectroscopy Michelson interferometer; Infrared spectroscopy; X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy XES, XAS, XANES; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy